per-2


per-2
    per-2
    English meaning: to go over; over
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “das Hinausfũhren about”
    Material: A. Dient as preposition, preverb and Adverb: a. per, peri (locative of Wurzelnomens) “vorwärts, in Hinausgehen, Hinũbergehen about, in Durchdringen, in Ü bermaß”, from which “about - out, through - toward “; O.Ind. pári, Av. pairi, O.Pers. pariy, Gk. περί, πέρ, Alb. për (partly also = IE *pro), pej, pe; besides per (*peri) with wiederhergestelltem r; Lat. per (*per or *peri); Osc.-Umbr. per- and pert (*per-ti); Gaul. eri-, O.Ir. ir-, er- (analogical *ero-); Welsh Corn. Bret. er; Goth. faír-, O.E. fyr-, O.H.G. fir- “ver-”, O.H.G. O.S. firi- ds.; O.Pruss. per, Lith. per̃, per-; Slav. per- in O.C.S. prě- etc.; from “vorwärts” entwickelte sich already IE die meaning “very” (O.Ind. pari-prī́ - “very lieb”, Gk. περι-καλλής “very beautiful”, Lat. per-magnus “very groß”; Lith. per̃-didis “to big, large”, O.C.S. prě-blagъ “very good”), then die the Ü berlegenheit (O.Ind. pári - as-, pári - bhū- “ũbertreffen”, Gk. περι-εῖναι ds.), of Ü bermaßes or hohen Grades (O.Ind. pári-vid-, Gk. περί-οιδα, Lat. per-vidēre “genau know, have knowledge of “); esp. O.Ind. and Gk. is die meaning “ringsum, umherum” (O.Ind. pári i - “umhergehen”, Gk. περι-ίεναι; Gk. περι- ζώννυμι = Lith. pér-jousti “umgũrten”); derivatives are: Goth. faírra adv. “afar”, as preposition “fern from”, O.Ice. fjar(ri) adv. “afar” (therefrom compar. firr, superl. first), O.E. feor(r), Eng. far, O.S. ferr, O.H.G. ferro adv. “afar, very”, compar. ferrōr (*fer-ro- from *fer-ero-); O.C.S. prědъ “before; voran; das Vordere” (as nadъ), prězъ “about - toward “; -ko-adj.: prěkъ “quer”, Cz. příč(ka) “ transom “ = Umbr. percam “virgam”, Osc. perk[ais] “perticis”; in zeitlicher Verwendung: O.Ind. par-út, Gk. πέρυσι etc. (see under u̯et- “year”) and die derivatives Lith. pérnai “in vorigen years”, Ltv. pērns adj. “the previous year, firn”, M.H.G. verne “the previous year”, vern “in vorigen years”, Goth. only in af faí rnin jēra “of Vorjahre”, O.S. fernun gēre, fernun iüra “in Vorjahre”, therefrom with i̯o-forms Goth. faírneis “παλαιός”, O.Ice. fyrnd f. “age”, O.H.G. firni “old; wise”, Ger. Firn “alter snow”; also to zero grade Goth. faúr das O.Ice. forn “old”, besides dem i-stem O.S. an furndagun, O.E. fyrn, firn “old”; compare O.Ind. purüṇ á - “vormalig” to purǘ , ap. paranam “vormals” to parü; Lat. perendiē “ũbermorgen” from *peren-die? auf per- in other Verwendung point at *per-u̯-r̥/n- in Hom. πεῖραρ (Pind. πεῖρας), πείρατος, Att. πέρας, -ατος “ending, end”, Hom. ἀπείρων “unendlich” = (Att.) ἀπέρονα πέρας μη ἔχοντα Hes., Hom. πειραίνω, Att. περαίνω “vollende”; - besides in O.Ind. eine gleichlautende family the meaning “knot”: O.Ind. párva- nom. acc. pl. n. “knot, Gelenke” (instead of *parvr̥), páru- m. “knot, joint, limb, member (Ozean, sky, heaven)”, paruṣ- n. “knot, joint, limb, member”; Gk. πεῖραρ “knot” is doubtful (G. Björck Mé l. Boisacq 1, 143 ff.). b. adj. pero-s “further”: O.Ind. pára-ḥ “further, jenseitig, fiend; prior; later”, superl. paramá-ḥ “fernster, last, best”, Av. ap. para- “ulterior, the other, Lateere, kũnftige”, paratara- “fiend”; O.Ind. paráḥ (nom. sg. m. with adv. End stress) preposition m. acc. “about - out”, with abl. “fern from”, with instr. “beyond from”, seldom adverbal = Av. parō preposition m. acc. “besides - apart from”; O.Ind. párü, Av. para (instr. sg.) adverbal “fort, weg, zur Seite”; O.Ind. parḗ (loc. sg.) “darauf, fernerhin”; O.Ind. param (nom. acc. sg. n. = Osc. perum) “out about, beyond, after”, preposition with abl.; Arm. heri “remote, distant, afar”; Gk. πέρᾱ(ν), Ion. πέρην (acc. sg. f.) “darũber out, beyond”, adv., preposition m. abl. (gen.); Lat. per-perüm “ inverted “, per-perus “ incorrect “, from which Gk. πέρπερος “Geck”; Gk. πέρᾱ “darũber out, beyond” (instr. sg. f. of stem *pero- = O.Ind. párü “weg, fort”) ; therefrom περαῖος “jenseitig” (περαίτερος), πέραθεν “from beyond her”, τῆ περάτῃ (γῆ) “gegen Westen”; from a schwundstufigen additional form from πέρᾱ through -ko- extended is delph . πρᾱκος “with e. Geldstrafe covered”, Ion. πρήσσω Att. πρά̄ττω “durchfahre, vollstrecke, vollfũhre, verrichte, do”; Osc. perum (= O.Ind. param) ‘sine”; O.Ir. ī̆re “further, länger” (*peri̯o-, das ī after sīr “long”); Hitt. parü (= Gk. πέρᾱ) “vorwärts, further, further”, Postpos. “from - heraus”; perii̯a(n) “darũber out”, Postpos. “about - out”, parranda ds. (*= Gk. πέραν + δε). c. prai, perai (Richtungsdativ of stem per), also prei, pri, peri. O.Ind. parḗ “daraufhin” (loc. sg.); Gk. παραί “παρά”, out of Hom. (Ion. Att.) only in compounds, as kyren. Παραι-βάτᾱ; πρίν (Hom. also πρί̄ν) “vorher; before”; probably reshaped from *πρῐς (*pri-is, to Lat. prior, prīscus) compare Cret. πρειν from *πρεις; Alb. pa “bevor”, if from *pari̯- (in vowel after parë “erster” reshaped?); Lat. prae prefix “voran, ahead, ũberaus”, preposition “before, because of”, Osc. prai, prae-, Umbr. pre “ргае”, prefix and preposition, pre-pa “priusquam”, compar. Lat. praeter “vorbei an = besides, ausgenommen” (*prai-tero-), Umbr. pretra “priōrēs”; aLat. prī (*prei) “prae” (prehendō “ergreife” from *praehendō), compar. *pri-i̯ōs, *pri-is (from which prīs-) in prior “the frũhere”, prīmus (from *prīs-mos), päl. prismu “prīma”, presumably also prīdem “before längerer time, längst”; prīs-cus “archaically” (*preis-ko-, compare Arm. erēc̣ , gen. eric̣u “Ältester, priest”, *preis-ku); prīstinus “vorig, vormalig, old”, pälign. pri-trom-e “prōtinus”, pristafalacirix “*praestibulütrīx”; here probably also Lat. prīvus (*prei-u̯os) “for sich consisting, einzeln; eigentũmlich; a thing stolen; looted “, prīvō, -üre “a thing mug, rob”, prīvütus “ stolen; looted; jemandem as Sondereigentum gehörig”, Umbr. prever ‘singulis”, preve ‘singulüriter”, Osc. preiuatud abl. “prīvütō, reō”; peri- = Celt. [p]ari- in Gaul. are- (Are-morica, Are-brigium, O.Brit. Are-clūtü etc.) “by, before, esp. östlich from” (compare Ir. an-air “from Easten”); O.H.G. O.S. furi “before, for, vorbei”, O.Ice. fyr (and with Komparativendung fyrir) “before, for”; compar. O.H.G. furiro “the frũhere, vordere”, superl. furist, M.H.G. vũrst “erster, vornehmster”, O.S. furist, O.E. fyr(e)st, Eng. first, O.Ice. fyrr adv. “ prior, vorher”, fyrri “the frũhere”, fyrstr “the erste”, O.E. fyrsta, O.S. O.H.G. furisto “prince, lord”; Goth. fri-sahts “Bild, example, riddle “ contains zero grades *pri-, as also O.H.G. fri-liez besides fir-, far-, fra-liez. prei- in Lith. priẽ, žem. prỹ “by, an”, Nominalpref. príe-, priẽ-, prie-, prū- (also prei-kãlas m. “Amboß”), preverb pri-; preposition priẽš “against”, príeš “before”; Ltv. prìe(k)ša “das Vordere” (*preiti̯ü); Ltv. pìere “forehead, Vorderseite” (*̲prìere?); O.Pruss. prei “to, by”, as prefix “also, before, an”, prēisiks m. “fiend”; O.C.S. pri preposition and prefix “by, an, to”; from Lat. prī[s]mus similar *prĭsemi-, -ei: O.Ir. rem- prefix (lenierend) “before, voran” (rïam “vor ihm”, remi “vor ihr”), remi- as preverb, preposition re (nasal.). d. peres, peros (and as 1. composition part pres- “before”, gen.-abl. of stem per-): O.Ind. puráḥ adv. and prefix “voran, vorn”, preposition “before”, Av. parō adv. “vorn, before”, preposition “before”, Gk. πάρος adv. “ prior; voran, vorn”, preposition “before”; pres- in Gk. πρέσ-βυς, -γυς “old” (“*in Alter vorangehend”, compare O.Ind. purō-gavá- “guide, leader” (*Leitstier), see under gʷou- “rother, cattle”; to Cret. πρεῖσγος see above); O.H.G. frist m. n., O.S. frist n., O.E. first m. “Frist” from *pres-sti-, O.Ice. frest n. ds. from *pres-sto-, compare O.Ind. puraḥ-sthita- “bevorstehend”; from *peros-stůti-s “in Alter voran seiend” probably O.Ir. arsaid, arsid “vetus” (O.Ind. purástüt “before, voran, vorn, vorher” is certainly puraḥ + abl. -tüt). e. pr̥- “hervor”, perhaps nom. sg. n. of stem per-: Gk. πάρ in Eigennamen as Παρ- μενίσκος, in el. παρ-βαίνω under likewise, πὰρ τὸν νόμον under likewise; Lat. por-tendō (: Goth. faúraÞanjan), -rigō , pol-liceor among others, Umbr. pur-douitu “porricito”, falisk. porded “brachte dar, widmete”; Goth. faúr, O.S. for, fur preposition “before, for”, O.E. for ds., O.Ice. for- “before”, with steigender meaning O.Ice. for-ljōtr “very ugly”, O.E. for-manig “gar viele, allzu viele”; Gmc.
    Derivatives: O.Ice. forr “hasty, voreilig” (*furha-, compare from *pro: Gk. πρόκα under S. 815); O.S. O.Fris. forth, ford, O.E. forð “fort, vorwärts”; M.H.G. vort “vorwärts, further, fort”, Nor. fort “quick, fast, bald”, O.Ice. forða, O.E. ge-forÞian “fortbringen”; compar. *furÞera- in O.S. furÞor, furdor adv., O.E. furðor adv. “further”, furðra adj. “größer, higher”, O.H.G. furdir, -ar adv. adj. “vorder, vorzũglicher, prior, vormalig”. compounds with forms from stü- ‘stand” in O.Ind. pr̥ṣṭi- f. “Rippe”, pr̥-ṣṭhá-m “hervorstehender back, acme, apex “, Av. par-šta- m. “back”, par-šti- f. (Du.) “back”, M.L.G. vorst- f. “ridge of the roof” from *for-stō, O.E. fyrst ds. from *fur-sti-; besides with lengthened grade prefix O.H.G. first m., O.E. fierst f. “First” from *fir-sti-; probably also Lat. postis “Pfosten, doorpost “ (*por-sti-s “hervorstehendes”); Gk. παστάς (besides παραστάς) “Pfosten, Pfeiler, Tũrpfeiler”, παρτάδες ἄμπελοι Hes. (*παρ-στάς), Lith. pir̃štas, O.C.S. prъstъ “finger” (“hervorstehend”); f. perů instr. sg. of stem *per; O.Ind. purǘ adv. “vormals, prior; ehe, bevor”, preposition “(to Schutze) before, without. besides”, Av. para, ap. parü adv. “zuvor”, preposition “before”, therefrom O.Ind. purüṇ á - “vormalig, prior, old”, ap. paranam adv. “vormals”; Gk. παρά, πάρα verbal prefix “before - toward, dar-”, preposition “an etwas hin, along, besides; during”; “by, from the Nähe weg, from seiten”; Goth. faúra, O.H.G. O.S. fora adv. “vorn, vorher”, verbal prefix “vorher, ahead, before”, preposition “before”, O.E. fore preposition “before”. g. pro, prō “vorwärts, vorn, voran”, formation as *apo, *upo; prō with Auslautsdehnung. O.Ind. prá- prefix “before, vorwärts, fort” (before Subst. and verbs), “very” (before adj.), Av. frü, fra-, ар. fra- prefix “vorwärts, voran; fort, weg”; Gk. πρό preverb “before”, preposition “before”, πρω-πέρυσι (rhythm. lengthening) “in vorvorigen year”; Lat. prŏ-, prōin compounds, prō preposition “before, for”; prōnus “vorwärts geneigt” (from *prōne, compare pōne “behind” from *post-ne); about prōdest s. WH. II 365; Osc.-Umbr. preverb. pro-, pru-; air- ro-, Welsh ry-, O.Bret. ro-, ru-, M.Bret. Bret. ra-, preverb and intensive prefix, e.g. O.Ir. ro-már “to big, large”, Gaul. GN f. Ro-smerta; Goth. fra-, O.H.G. fir-, Ger. ver- preverb (latter partly also = Goth. faír-, see above A.); O.Pruss. pra, pro “through”, as preverb “ver-”, Lith. pra, prõ “vorbei”, as preverb “vorbei-, through -, ver-”, compare prã-garas “ wolverine “ = Ltv. pra-garis ds.; Ltv. pruô-jãm “weg, fort”; O.C.S. preverb pro- “ through -, ver-”, preposition Russ. Cz. pro “because of”, ablaut. Russ. prá-děd, Serb. prȁ-djed “great grandfather”; doubled: O.Ind. prápra, Gk. πρόπρο “ always vorwärts”. pru- (Reim auf *pu, s. *apo?) lies the basic in Gk. δια-πρυ-σιός “durchgehend”, πρυμνός “das äußerste end from perhaps forming” (πρύμνη “Hinterschiff” etc.). prō- “early, matutinal, morgens” in O.Ind. prü-tár “early, matutinal, morgens”, Gk. πρωΐ (Att. πρῴ) “early, matutinal, morgens”, πρώιος “morgendlich”, Dor. πρώᾱν, πρά̄ν (*πρωᾱν), Att. πρῴην (*πρωFιᾱν scil. ἡμέραν) “kũrzlich, vorgestern”, O.H.G. fruo “in the Frũhe”, fruoi, M.H.G. vrũeje (= πρωίος) adj. “early, matutinal” (IE *prō); Lith. prõ “vorbei”, Slav. pra- see above. derivatives from pro-: pro-tero- in O.Ind. pratarám, -ǘm adv. “further, prospectively “, Av. fratara- “the vordere, frũhere”, Gk. πρότερος “the vordere, vorige”; Osc. pruter pan “priusquam” is einzelsprachlich to *prō- shaped, also O.Ind. prütá r “early, matutinal, morgens” see above; in addition with Superlativsuffix -temo-: O.Ind. pratamüm “vorzugsweise”, Av. fratǝma-, ар. fratama- “the vorderste, vornehmste, erste” (besides O.Ind. prathamá- “erster” and einzelne Iran. forms with th); Gk. *πρό-ατος (from πρότατος?) perhaps in Dor. πρᾶτος “erster”; but Gk. πρῶτος ds. from *pr̥̄-to- (reshaped from *pr̥̄-mo- ds.); in addition πρητήν m. “ one-year-old lamb” (see above S. 314); pro-mo-: Gk. πρόμος “Vorderster, Vorkämpfer, guide, leader”, Umbr. promom adv. “prīmum”, Goth. fram adv. “further”, preposition “from - her”, O.Ice. fram adv. “vorwärts”, frü (*fram) preposition “weg from”, O.H.G. fram adv. “vorwärts, fort, further, immediately, right away”, preposition “fort from, from - her”, O.E. from adv. “fort”, preposition “weg from”; O.Ice. framr “voranstehend, vorwärtsstrebend, distinguished “, O.E. fram “tũchtig pert “; pre-mo- in Gk. πράμος “guide, leader” (rather korrupt for πρόμος ds.?), Goth. fruma “erster” (Sup. frumists), M.H.G. frum, vrom “proficient, brav” (Ger. fromm; O.H.G. O.S. fruma f. “benefit”, Ger. Frommen); similarly Lat. probus “good, proficient, brav”, Umbr. profe “probe” from *pro-bhu̯o-s : O.Ind. pra-bhú- ‘salient, superb an power and Fũlle”, as well as in O.Bulg. pro-stъ “rechtschaffen, simple, just, schlicht”, and (from *pr̥̄-mo-) O.S. formo, O.E. forma “erster” (superl. fyrmest), Lith. рìrmas O.Pruss. pirmas “erster”, probably Lat. prandium “Frũhmahlzeit” from *prüm-edi̯om (*pr̥̄m-). prō̆ -ko- “voran seiend”: Gk. πρόκα (nom. acc. pl. n.) adv. ‘sofort”, Lat. reci-procus eig. “backwards and vorwärts gerichtet”, aLat. procum gen. pl., “procerum”, after pauperēs reshaped to procerēs, -um “die Vornehmsten; die from the wall herausragenden Balkenköpfe”; procul “afar” (compare simul); Lat. prope “nahe by”, superl. proximus, lit. *pro-kʷe “and vorwärts (an etwas heran)”, with Assimil. p - kʷ to p - p; in addition propter “besides” (*propiter) and propinquus “benachbart, related” (compare O.Ind. praty-áñč- “zugewandt”); compare above S. 813 Gmc. *furha; O.C.S. prokъ “ũbrig”, proče adv. “λοιπόν, igitur” (*proki̯om); auf ein *prō-ko- goes back Bret. a-raok “vorwärts, voran, prior “, Welsh (y)rhawg “auf lange”, with Proklisenkũrzung: Bret. rak, Corn. rag, Welsh rhag “before”. prō̆ -u̯o-: in O.Ind. pravaṇü- “(vorwärts) geneigt, abschũssig”, n. ‘slope, Halde”; about Lat. prōnus see above; Gk. πρᾱνής, Hom. πρηνής “vorwärts geneigt” after Leumann Homer. Wörter 77 f. from *προ-ᾱνης “face ahead”; with other meaning O.H.G. frō, O.S. frao, O.E. frēa “master, mister” (*frawan-), Goth. frauja “master, mister” (O.Ice. Freyr GN to o-stem geworden), O.S. frōio ds., O.Ice. freyja “mistress; name the goddess”, O.H.G. frouwa “wife, woman”; besides O.S. frūa, M.L.G. frūwe “wife, woman” from *frōwōn, idg *prō-u̯o-, das also in Att. πρῶρα (Lat. Lw. prōra) ‘schiffsvorderteil” (πρωFαιρα-, -αρι̯α IE *prōu̯ -r̥i̯ü); perhaps Lat. prōvincia , if auf a *prōu̯ iōn “master, mister, Herrschaft” being based on; O.Bulg. pravъ “right, right” (“*gradaus”); with the same forms, but as Lith. pìr-mas “erster” from *perǝ- ‘shaped”, IE реrǝ-u̯o- in: O.Ind. pū́ rva-, Av. paurva-, pourva-, ар. paruva- “the vordere, frũhere” (O.Ind. pūrvyá -, Av. paouruya- paoirya-, ap. paruviya “prior”, then “primus”), Alb. parë “erster”, para “vor”; O.C.S. prъvъ prьvъ “the erste”; probably also die base from O.E. forwost, forWest “the erste”. h. preti, proti “compared with, entgegen, against”, partly in sense of Entgelts; preti-̯ os “ equal in “. O.Ind. práti (in Iran. through paiti verdrängt) prefix “against, back etc.” preposition “against” etc.; Gk. Hom. προτί (Cret. πορτί reconverted), Ion. Att. Lesb. πρός (compare πρόσ(σ)ω “vorwärts” from *proti̯ō, πρόσθε(ν) “from vorn”), pamphyl. περτί (reconverted from *πρετί), Eol. πρές, adv. “yet in addition, moreover”, prefix, preposition “against - toward, to, against”, “an”, “after a Bereich hin; by (in Schwũren)”, “from - her, from”; Lat. pretium “Wert, Preis a thing” (Neutr. eines adj. *preti̯os), compare O.Ind. prati-as- “gleichkommen”, apratü (stem *pratay-) “ without Entgelt, free”, Av. pǝrǝskü (*pr̥t-skü) “Preis or Wert”, O.C.S. protivъ, protivǫ “entgegen”, kaschub. procim; wRuss. preci, Pol. przeciw “against” (also in sense, mind of Tauschverhältnisses); Ltv. pret etc. i. porsō(d) : Arm. aṙ “by, an, besides”, verbal prefix and preposition; in addition aṙaj “Vorderseite, Anfang”, aṙajin “erster”; Gk. πόρρω, πόρσω (Pind.) “vorwärts” = Lat. porrō “vorwärts, fũrder”; through ihren o-vocalism auffällige formatIon.
    References: WP. II 29 ff., EM.2 754 f., 801, 808 ff., 811 f., WH. II 283 ff., 351, 364 ff., Trautmann 214 f., 220, 229 f., 230 ff., Schwyzer Gk. 2, 491 ff., 499 ff., 505 ff., 508 ff., 541 f., 543 ff., 654 ff.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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